Since 2009, Northeastern Nigeria has been hit by a violent conflict which have led to continued large-scale displacements, disruption of basic services, food insecurity, malnutrition, and protection issues.
As a matter of fact, the extreme violence caused by non-state armed groups (NSAGs) has resulted in the forced displacement of several millions of civilians from their homes and total loss of their livelihoods.
Agricultural livelihoods have been devastated through the destruction of irrigation and farming facilities, the loss of livestock, reduced access to fishing grounds, the collapse of extension services. The value chain for crops, livestock and fisheries has been also severely disrupted as a consequence of the ongoing conflict.
Additionally, looting and fear of attacks have prevented farmers from working in their fields, leading to reduced harvests, loss of productive assets and extremely reduced purchasing power.
The impact of the conflict on agriculture was estimated at USD 3.7 billion in 2015, in a country where the agriculture sector provides livelihoods for about 90 percent of the rural population.
According to the October 2018 Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) developed by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), 2,026, 602 internally displaced persons (IDPs) were identified in the six northeastern States. Women and children constitute 79 percent of IDPs. About 54 percent of IDPs are women, many of whom are heads of households living in crowded, culturally inappropriate conditions.
As a consequence of military operations, from December 2017 to October 2018, the number of IDPs in the Northeast of Nigeria has risen from 1,702,680 to 2,206,602 individuals (+29.6%). The October 2018 DTM also provides a clear picture of the number of returnees by State (Borno: 683,012; Adamawa: 780,571; Yobe: 177,327), giving a total of 1,640,910 in the Borno, Adamawa and Yobe States (BAY).
In addition to the massive displacements, chronic underdevelopment as well as high rates of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment have been registered in the three above mentioned States
Source: Food and Agricultural Organizations of the United Nations