General

NCDC Weekly Epidemiological Report: Volume 9, No. 25 – 5th July, 2019

Rainy Season and Infectious Diseases: 5 Tips to Prevent Cholera

Various states in Nigeria have begun to experience high levels of rainfall. High rainfall can cause widespread flooding, and stagnant water can be a breeding ground for bacteria as well as mosquitoes. This also leads to increased transmission of communicable diseases such as cholera. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has issued a public health advisory, with five tips to prevent the spread of cholera.

1. Ensure that water is boiled and stored in a clean and safe container before drinking. Ensure that the seals of bottled water are in place

2. Wash your hands frequently with soap and clean running water. Use alcohol-based hand sanitiser if soap and clean water are not available

3. Ensure that food is well cooked before consumption. Avoid raw food such as fruits and vegetables, except you have washed them in safe water or peeled them yourself.

4. Avoid open defecation, indiscriminate refuse dumping and ensure proper disposal of waste and frequent clearing of sewage

5. If you experience sudden watery diarrhoea, please do not self-medicate, visit a health care facility immediately and take all sick persons with the signs or symptoms above to a health care facility immediately

Cholera is an easily treatable disease, if detected early. Most infected people can be treated successfully through prompt administration of oral rehydration solution (ORS), to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. The ORS solution is available as a powder that can be reconstituted in boiled or bottled water. Without rehydration, approximately half the people with cholera die. With treatment, the number of fatalities drops to less than 1 percent. Severely dehydrated people may also need intravenous fluids.

The NCDC cholera technical working group which includes representatives of partner agencies, continues to monitor cases and support states in improving preparedness and response. We advise an increased focus on the provision of potable water, adequate sanitation and institution of good hygiene practices (WaSH). States are also enjoined to ensure early reporting and confirmation of cases, for improved response.

Summary of Incidents

Ongoing Incidents are defined as confirmed cases where a national EOC or equivalent has been activated

Other incidents are those confirmed cases for which EOC is not activated.

Notes

1. Information for this disease was retrieved from the Technical Working Group and Situation Reports

2. Case Fatality Rate (CFR) for this disease is reported for confirmed cases only

3. Information for this disease was retrieved from IDSR 002 data

4. CFR for this disease is reported for total cases i.e. suspected + confirmed

5. Information for sentinel influenza was retrieved from the Laboratory

Source: Government of Nigeria